Author + information
- Received October 19, 2016
- Revision received March 23, 2017
- Accepted April 18, 2017
- Published online June 12, 2017.
- Emily A. Wang, MD, MASa,∗ (, )
- Nicole Redmond, MD, PhD, MPHb,
- Cheryl R. Dennison Himmelfarb, PhD, ANP, RNc,
- Becky Pettit, PhDd,
- Marc Stern, MD, MPHe,
- Jue Chen, PhDb,
- Susan Shero, RN, MSb,
- Erin Iturriaga, MSNb,
- Paul Sorlie, PhDb and
- Ana V. Diez Roux, MD, PhD, MPHf
- aDepartment of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut
- bNational Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland
- cSchool of Nursing, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland
- dDepartment of Sociology, the University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas
- eSchool of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington
- fSchool of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
- ↵∗Address for correspondence:
Dr. Emily A. Wang, Yale School of Medicine, Section of General Internal Medicine, PO Box 208056, 333 Cedar Street, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8056.
Currently, 2.2 million individuals are incarcerated, and more than 11 million have been released from U.S. correctional facilities. Individuals with a history of incarceration are more likely to be of racial and ethnic minority populations, poor, and have higher rates of cardiovascular risk factors, especially smoking and hypertension. Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death among incarcerated individuals, and those recently released have a higher risk of being hospitalized and dying of cardiovascular disease compared with the general population, even after accounting for differences in racial identity and socioeconomic status. In this review, the authors: 1) present information on the cardiovascular health of justice-involved populations, and unique prevention and care conditions in correctional facilities; 2) identify knowledge gaps; and 3) propose promising areas for research to improve the cardiovascular health of this population. An Executive Summary of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute workshop on this topic is available.
- correctional health care
- National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
- risk factors
Support for the Working Group was provided by the Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institutes of Health (NIH). Dr. Wang has received salary support from the NHLBI (K23 HL103720). Dr. Pettit was supported by the Population Research Center at The University of Texas at Austin, which is supported by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (R24HD042849); and receives support from the Laura and John Arnold Foundation. Dr. Diez Roux has received support from NHLBI grant 2P60MD002249. Drs. Redmond, Chen, and Sorlie, and Ms. Shero and Ms. Iturriaga are employees of the NIH. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the NHLBI or the NIH. Dr. Redmond is a board member of the nonprofit organization Physicians for Criminal Justice Reform, from which she receives no financial support; participated in the workshop as an employee of the University of Alabama at Birmingham; and contributed to this article as an employee of the NHLBI. Dr. Diez Roux served as the chair of this workshop. All other authors have reported that they have no relationships relevant to the contents of this paper to disclose.
- Received October 19, 2016.
- Revision received March 23, 2017.
- Accepted April 18, 2017.
- 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation